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Uzroci neplodnosti u muškarca su bolesti, infekcije ili urođeni poremećaji koji ...

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Nepročitano 13-08-09, 10:14   #1
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Zadani Uzroci neplodnosti u muškarca

Uzroci neplodnosti u muškarca su bolesti, infekcije ili urođeni poremećaji koji dovode do smanjenja broja ili odsustva spermija u ejakulatu, nedovoljne pokretljivosti spermija ili neprohodnosti sjemevoda, ali su najčešće direktno ili indirektno povezani sa spermatogenezom.

I dok je muška neplodnost prije nekih dvadesetak godina bila uzrokom bračne neplodnosti tek u 20% slučajeva, danas je ovaj udio narastao na 40%. Novija istraživanja ukazuju da se prosječan broj spermija u ejakulatu u proteklih pola stoljeća smanjio za gotovo 50%, a dodatno zabrinjava činjenica da je u ionako brojčano oslabljenom ejakulatu sve više slabije ili nepokretnih kao i morfološki nenormalnih spermija.

Varikokela:

Ovaj pojam označuje proširenje venskog spleta (plexus pampiniformis) koji testis opskrbljuje krvlju. Učestalost varikokele u općoj populaciji iznosi 13%, a u neplodnih muškaraca 36%. Razlog proširenju ovog venskog spleta je mehaničke prirode, usljed nedostatka ili nepravilne funkcije zalistka spermatične vene na mjestu ulijevanja u bubrežnu venu. Zbog zadržavanja krvi u proširenim venama dolazi do porasta temperature u testisu, pri čemu se mogu oštetiti stanice iz kojih se razvijaju spermiji. U 90% muškaraca s varikokelom je smanjena pokretljivost spermija. Varikokela se liječi kirurški, a nakon operacije se često poboljšava kakvoća spermija.

Orhitis:

Upala testisa najčešće nastaje kao teška komplikacija zaušnjaka (mumps). Posljedice su teže ako se bolest preboli, a ne preleži te ako se pojavi u starijoj životnoj dobi. Javlja se smanjeni broj do potpunog odsustva spermatozoida u sjemenoj tekućini ili pak usljed upale dolazi do neprohodnosti sjemenih kanalića.

Spolno prenosive bolesti:

Neke od spolno prenosivih bolesti mogu dovesti do sekundarne neplodnosti u muškarca: oštećenja testisa ili pak izazvati neprohodnost sjemevoda. Otuda je nužno obaviti bakteriološki pregled urina, ejakulata i sekreta prostate kako bi se utvrdilo postojanje infekcije, te omogućilo adekvatno liječenje. Najčešće spolno prenosive bolesti su klamidija, gonokok, trichomonas, ureaplasma i mikoplazma.

Imunološki uzroci:

Autoimunost je uzrok neplodnosti u 2 - 13% neplodnih muškaraca. Autoantitijela mogu se naći i nakon virusne infekcije ili operacija u području testisa, a najčešće nastaju kao posljedica oštećenja krvno-testisne barijere. Moguće je da je to i glavni uzrok oligo- i azoospermije tzv. nepoznatnog uzroka (idiopatska oligo- i azoospermija).

Ostala oštećenja spolnih žlijezda:


Oštećenja testisa mogu nastupiti usljed zračenja (ionizirajuće i elektronsko), kao i toksičkog djelovanja raznih otrova i lijekova. Visoka temperatura na radnom mjestu, kontakt sa određenim kemikalijama kao što su organski rastvarači (toluen, benzen, ksilen), olovo, kadmij, živa i drugi teški metali, anestetički plinovi, pesticidi, herbicidi, dioksin kao i pretjerano pijenje alkohola, pušenje i neuredan život mogu naštetiti plodnosti. Stoga je u nekim slučajevima dovoljna terapija promjena načina života.

Nepravilan razvitak spolnih organa:


Nepravilno razvijeni testisi neće moći stvarati spermije niti obavljati svoju endokrinu funkciju.

  • Kriptorhizam: Javlja se u oko 4% dječaka, a označuje zaostajanje u spuštanju testisa iz trbušne šupljine u mošnje. Neplodnost nastupa uslijed oštećenja zametnog epitela povišenom temperaturom u trbušnoj šupljini. Liječenje je vrlo uspješno: hormonskim putem ili kirurški.
  • Hipogonadizam: Radi se o genetski predodređenoj, urođenoj anomaliji kod koje postoji slabija razvijenost (shodno tome i slabija funkcionalnost) testisa. Uglavnom su u pitanju kromosomske abnormalnosti.

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Nepročitano 15-06-14, 20:48   #2
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Zadani

Iz osobnog iskustva znam da kod sporih spermija pomaže matična mliječ, u tom slučaju je bila riječ o Reviti.
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Jesam (16-06-14)
Nepročitano 31-03-19, 10:45   #3
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Zadani

Klinefelterov sindom 47 XXY
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Nepročitano 31-03-19, 13:29   #4
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Moguće i estrogenska dominacija.


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Nepročitano 31-03-19, 18:35   #5
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Bez laboratorija nista.
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Nepročitano 01-04-19, 09:02   #6
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Zadani

Citat:
Originally Posted by Vortex Pogledaj Post
Klinefelterov sindom 47 XXY
Učestalost je 1:1000.

Estrogenska dominacija je danas vrlo učestala zbog zagađivača i loše i pogrešne prehrane, uz sve druge nepogode suvremenog života, poput vječno prisutnog stresa.


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Nepročitano 01-04-19, 10:55   #7
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Citat:
Originally Posted by Jesam Pogledaj Post
Učestalost je 1:1000.

Estrogenska dominacija je danas vrlo učestala zbog zagađivača i loše i pogrešne prehrane, uz sve druge nepogode suvremenog života, poput vječno prisutnog stresa.
Estrogen se moze regulirati i popraviti stvar ali kod Klinefeltera koji se najcesce vrlo kasno otkriva nema popravka.
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Nepročitano 01-04-19, 11:14   #8
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Citat:
Originally Posted by Vortex Pogledaj Post
Estrogen se moze regulirati i popraviti stvar ali kod Klinefeltera koji se najcesce vrlo kasno otkriva nema popravka.
Naravno, to je točno.


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Nepročitano 01-04-19, 11:54   #9
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Kod mene je nedavno otkriven nakon 40 i kusur g.Da nisam bio na operaciji koljena nikad se ne bi otkrilo.
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