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Proteini u biljkama

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Veganstvo Prehrana bez proizvoda životinjskog porijekla

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Nepročitano 17-06-13, 08:57   #1
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Zadani Proteini u biljkama

isprika zbog engleskog teksta i nedostatka vremena da prevodim, ali nadam se da će većina razumjeti što piše

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One of the most common misconceptions is that one must eat animal products, such as meat, eggs and dairy, in order to get protein. If you are eating a plant food diet, you're probably used to non-vegetarians asking you where do you get your protein on a plant based diet.

Even though this myth has been debunked, many people still believe they ''need'' animal protein.

People, especially athletes and bodybuilders, are often told that they need enormous amounts of dietary protein, in order to build muscles, which is a myth. What they actually need is more calories and growth hormone, not tons of dietary protein. Amazingly, animal products inhibit GH secretion, which is why many meat eating athletes and bodybuilders have to take synthetic GH or steroids. Many plant foods, on the other hand, can help increase GH secretion, so it's still easier for a vegetarian to get big muscles, without taking synthetic GH and steroids.

Animal products also increase cortisol levels, leading to hypercortisolism, and cortisol is known to decreases amino acid uptake by muscle tissue, and inhibits protein synthesis.

People think that just because animal products contain a lot of protein, they are good for building muscles, but they are not. In fact, lots of athletes eat way too much animal protein, which leads to bone and muscle loss, as well as kidney problems, because it's just too acidic for the human body. It's a well-known fact that bone and muscle loss and kidney problems are very common among non-vegetarian athletes and bodybuilders.

Athletes and bodybuilders only need a bit more protein than the average human, but nowhere near as much as 300-500 g protein a day, as many people believe. The average human only needs 10% protein, and consuming more than 25% protein a day is very unhealthy.

Eating high quality plant based protein and strength training are obviously much easier and healthier ways to build muscles.


As a matter of fact, we have zero dietary requirements for animal protein. Animal protein is one of the worst things a human could eat. Animal protein is also the main cause of cancer and osteoporosis. For more info on animal protein and cancer, watch the Forks Over Knives documentary (http://www.tudou.com/programs/view/NCvziUb2ciY) and read The China Study.


In addition, high-protein diets, in general, cause premature aging, disease and shorter lifespans in humans and other animals, so I would not recommend anyone to eat a lot of protein. High-carb / low-protein raw fruitarian / vegetarian diets, on the other hand, are associated with health and longevity.


Most people probably don't know it yet, but it's hard not to get enough protein, no matter what diet you follow. Protein is in everything, even in fruits. If you follow nutrient rich diets, it's impossible not to get your protein. In fact, most of us who follow plant based diets get even more protein than recommended.

It's actually very easy to get your protein, as long as you are getting enough calories. Technically, there is no such thing as ''protein deficiency'', and protein intake can only be low if you don't get enough calories. If you get 1500-2000 to 3000-4000 calories a day, depending on how active you are, you will not suffer from ''protein deficiency'', no matter what.

Most green leafy veggies have from 10-15% to 25-30% protein. Some greens have even more protein.

Stinging Nettles are one of the highest known sources of protein in a leafy green, and of superior quality than many other green leafy vegetables. They contain on average 22% protein. The dried leaf of Nettle contains 40% protein.

http://www.acupuncturebrooklyn.com/alternative-health/nettles

http://rawglow.com/blog/2010/01/20/how-to-prepare-and-enjoy-stinging-nettles/

http://www.herballegacy.com/Vance_Chemical.html

http://www.herbsarespecial.com.au/free-herb-information/nettle.html

http://cavemanfood.blogspot.com/2009/01/stinging-nettle-infusion.html

Brussels sprouts, watercress, kale, broccoli, Romaine lettuce and other types of lettuce, spinach, asparagus, collard greens, mustard greens, cauliflowers, parsley, okra, chicory, cilantro, alfalfa, etc. are some of the best protein sources among green leafy veggies. Not only they are great sources of protein, but they are also excellent sources of calcium. However, Stinging Nettles seem to have enormous amounts of calcium, compared to other greens. I have checked on http://cronometer.com/ and it appears that 500 g of Stinging Nettles have 2405,0 mg of calcium (200%).

There are also some plant foods that are considered ''protein concentrates''.


''INCOMPLETE PROTEIN'' VS. ''COMPLETE PROTEIN'' -- One of the biggest lies that you've ever heard is that animal products are ''the only'' sources of ''complete protein''. Well, that's just another lie that comes from the meat, eggs and dairy industries. They've been promoting meat, eggs and dairy as ''the only'' sources of ''complete protein'' for years, and even many doctors and nutritionists still believe this myth.

Did you know that quinoa, hemp and algae are ''complete protein'' sources too? So is soy, but I do not recommend soy products on a regular basis, as they can block nutrients absorption. Even amaranth and buckwheat are listed as ''complete protein'' sources, as they contain all 9 essential amino acids in the right amounts.

But the funny thing is, we don't need ''complete protein'', actually. Breaking down ''complete protein'' does more ''harm'' than good. The human body is supposed to combine by itself all amino acids from ''incomplete protein'' sources, required for protein synthesis. You don't even have to eat all essential amino acids at the same meal. Just make sure you eat a wide variety of fruits, veggies, legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, etc.

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002222.htm

http://www.care2.com/greenliving/10-protein-packed-plants.html

http://www.veganpeace.com/nutrient_information/nutrient_info/good_sources/good_sources_protein.htm

In fact, technically, all plants have ''complete protein''. The ''incomplete protein'' was just a myth, as there is no such thing as ''incomplete protein''. If you check the numbers on Cron-O-Meter (http://cronometer.com/), you'll see that you can get over 100% of each essential amino acid by just increasing the quantity. And if you think that eating a lot of plant foods is bad, well, let me tell you that many animal products (eggs, for example), don't have enough of the essential amino acids per 100 g either, so you'd have to eat much more in order to get enough of all the essential amino acids, but the problem is, the more animal products you eat, the sicker you get. In other words, I'd rather eat a watermelon or 3 kilos of greens and potatoes than eating a lot of eggs or dairy. Meat may contain all the essential amino acids per 100 g, but that's because it has a lot of protein per 100 g - chicken has like 30 g of protein per 100 g, while eggs have only like 6 g of protein per egg. However, eating meat can lead to protein excess, which is so bad for your health.
Eating lots of kg of fresh fruits and veggies, like other primates, is really the healthiest way to get good protein! Some people may prefer beans / legumes, grains, or seaweeds, as those are ''protein concentrates'' - they have so much more protein than fruits and veggies per 100 g, and many of them have even more protein than meats, eggs and dairy per 100 g. But, like I said, best sources of protein are fresh fruits and veggies - they also have the right amount of protein, so we wouldn't have to worry about protein excess if we ate only or mostly fresh fruits and veggies.

http://michaelbluejay.com/veg/protein.html


LYSINE - GOOD SOURCES -- Lysine is one of the most important amino acids, which plays an important role in calcium absorption and bone health.

Amaranth and legumes (beans, chickpeas, peas / green peas, lentils, etc.), as well as peanuts, almonds, walnuts, hazelnuts, fenugreek seeds and oats, are among the best sources of lysine. Other good sources are: watermelons; avocados; beets; potatoes; corn; spinach; asparagus; pumpkin seeds & squash; yams; cashews (not recommended); dried peaches; apricots; Brussels sprouts; oranges; pecans, etc. Pineapples, tomatoes, figs, apples, carrots, pears, iceberg lettuce, celery, broccoli, eggplant, dates, strawberries, blueberries, mangoes, papaya and mushrooms also contain lysine, but in much smaller amounts. Also, note that this list is incomplete, as there are more foods that contain lysine, but it would be impossible to write them all.

Make sure you eat foods rich in lysine on a regular basis!


PROTEIN - GOOD SOURCES -- Quinoa, nuts, seeds, legumes, amaranth, buckwheat, algae, mushrooms, and, of course, fruits and green leafy veggies, are all excellent vegan friendly sources of high quality protein.

Animal protein, on the other hand, is low quality and used protein, that was meant for the body of the animal who was killed. Why ''filter'' your protein and other nutrients through others' bodies, when you can get them in their PUREST form, directly from the natural source?!


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Nepročitano 17-06-13, 15:33   #2
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Ja dosta koristim konoplju (uz puno ostalog s liste),stavljam prah u šejkove. A i onako u zrnu mi je fina,al čini mi se da dođe skuplje.


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Nepročitano 31-07-13, 10:20   #3
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Zadani Sa stranice prijatelji životinja

Proteini su velike molekule sagrađene od manjih jedinica, aminokiselina. Postoji 20 aminokiselina prisutnih u biljkama i mesu životinja. Općenito se smatra da postoji osam aminokiselina koje ljudsko tijelo ne može samo proizvesti te njih treba unijeti hranom u organizam. Te aminokiseline su izoleucin, leucin, lizin, metionin, fenilalanin, treonin, triptofan i valin. Dojenčadi su osim njih potrebni i dodatni izvori histidina. Proteini su ključni za stvaranje tkiva i poticanje rasta, a prisutni su i u lučenju hormona i ostalih fiziološki aktivnih tvari.

Potrebne količine proteina

Stručnjaci još uvijek nisu sigurni koliko nam je proteina potrebno te su njihove procjene tijekom prošlih nekoliko godina često mijenjane. Državne i međunarodne organizacije koje savjetuju o prehrambenim potrebama preporučuju razine unosa proteina koje ispunjavaju ili čak nadilaze naše potrebe. U obzir se uzimaju individualna odstupanja od preporučenih razina, tako da su u omjere ugrađene široke sigurnosne granice. Dolje prikazane preporuke temelje se na potpunoj probavljivosti proteina mlijeka ili jaja. S obzirom da protein raznih biljaka može biti dijelom neprobavljiv, Ministarstvo zdravstva Velike Britanije preporučuje da vegetarijanci i vegani pomnože navedene iznose za 1.1.
Preporuke o unošenju proteina donesene u Velikoj Britaniji:

Dob: Potrebna količina (g/dan)
Dojenčad/Djeca

0-12 mjeseci 12.5-14.9
1-3 godina 14.5
4-10 godina 19.7-28.3
Dječaci
11-14 godina 42.1
15-18 godina 55.2
Djevojčice

11-14 godina 41.2
15-18 godina 45
Muškarci

19-50 godina 55.5
50+ godina 53.3
Žene
19-50 godina 45
50 + godina 46.5
U vrijeme trudnoće dodatnih 6g/dan
U vrijeme dojenja od 0-6 mjeseci dodatnih 11g/dan
U vrijeme dojenja od 6+ mjeseci dodatnih 8g/dan

Gore navedeni iznosi predstavljaju dnevnu količinu proteina koja je dovoljna ili više nego dovoljna za 97% populacije. Ovi iznosi slični su preporučenim dnevnim količinama proteina prije korištenima u Velikoj Britaniji.
Iznosi preporučeni 1989. godine u SAD-u slični su iznosima koje predlaže Velika Britanija.

Veganski izvori proteina
Hrana koja u veganskoj prehrani služi kao izvor proteina uključuje mahunarke (grašak, grah, leća, soja), žitarice (pšenica, zob, riža, ječam, heljda, proso, tjestenina, kruh), orašasto voće (lješnak, badem, orah, indijski oraščići) i sjemenke suncokreta, bučine koštice i sezam.
Primjeri namirnica koje sadrže 10g proteina:
Namirnica: Količina potrebna za proizvodnju 10g proteina (g)
Sojino brašno 24
Kikiriki 39
Bučine koštice 41
Bademi 47
Brazilski oraščić 50
Sjeme suncokreta 51
Sezam 55
Lješnjaci 71
Kruh od neprosijanog brašna 95
Leća (kuhana) 114
Slanutak (kuhan) 119
Grah (kuhan) 119
Špageti od neprosijanog brašna 213
Integralna riža (kuhana) 385

Imaju li proteini biljnog podrijetla manju hranjivu vrijednost?
Naravno da ne! U prošlosti su nutricionisti vjerovali da biljni proteini imaju manju hranjivu vrijednost od životinjskih. I danas se mogu pronaći primjeri takvog uvjerenja, prema kojem su proteini životinjskog porijekla vrjedniji od biljnih. Ono se ponajprije temelji na jednom ranom istraživanju provedenom na pokusnim štakorima koje je pokazalo da se dojenčadi štakora, koji su bili hranjeni biljnim proteinima, rast naglo ubrzao nakon što su im u prehranu dodane dodatne aminokiseline. Nakon toga se pretpostavilo da jednako pravilo vrijedi i za ljude. No u navedenim eksperimentima razlika između vrijednosti biljnih i životinjskih proteina bila je pretjerana. Osim toga, štakori i ljudi imaju različite prehrambene potrebe, a mladi štakori rastu brže od ljudske dojenčadi te im je zato potrebno više proteina. Kada bi mlade štakore hranili ljudskim mllijekom oni bi se razvijali mnogo sporije. Gore spomenuto istraživanje precijenilo je vrijednost određenih proteina životinjskoga podrijetla, pritom potcjenjujući vrijednost biljnih proteina, te je Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija napustila taj površan način ocjenjivanja proteina važnih za ljudsko tijelo.

Je li nužno miješati proteine?
Nimalo. Istraživanja na laboratorijskim štakorima dovela su do pogrešne teorije o miješanju proteina koja se s vremenom prilično proširila. Temeljila se na pretpostavki da bi se dodatni proteini s različitim aminokiselinama, poput onih prisutnih u grahu i grašku, trebali konzumirati pri svakom obroku s namjerom da se poveća unos aminokiselina.
Proteini u hrani koju konzumiramo imaju različite sastave, te tako u određenim proteinima može pronaći više jednih, a manje drugih proteina. Dugo vremena se vrijednost određenog proteina mjerila prema sastavu njegovih aminokiselina i te se u ocjenjivanju uspoređivao s proteinom kokošjeg jaja koji je predstavljao 100%. Tako se u svakom proteinu zadnja aminokiselina ispod prosječnog standarda naziva graničnom aminokiselinom. To nije nužno aminokiselina prisutna u najmanjoj količini već ona prisutna u najmanjoj količini u usporedbi s proteinom kokošjeg jaja! U većini sjemenki i žitarica granična aminokiselina je lisin, a u većini mahunarki to je metionin. Triptofan je granična aminokiselina u kukuruzu, a metionin u govedini. Iako svaka namirnica ima graničnu aminokiselinu, većina namirnica ima sve aminokiseline u količini dovoljnoj za održavanje ljudskog zdravlja.
I vegetarijancima se ponekad preporučuje da miješaju proteine biljnog podrijetla s mliječnim proizvodima, iako se danas ta preporuka smatra zastarjelom. Miješanje proteina može dovesti do smanjenja količine proteina potrebnog za održavanje pozitivne proteinske ravnoteže u ljudskom tijelu iako određena istraživanja pokazuju da do toga ne mora uvijek nužno doći. Prehrana koja se temelji na voću i povrću pruža ljudskom tijelu preporučenu količinu neizostavnih aminokiselina, te je miješanje proteina pri svakom obroku nepotrebno. Protein soje zapravo ima biološku vrijednost jednaku proteinu životinjskog podrijetla.

Je li moguće konzumirati previše proteina?
Istraživanja su pokazala da veganska prehrana pruža idealnu količinu proteina, a koja je u skladu s preporukama Svjetske zdravstvene organizacije i Ministarstva zdravstva Velike Britanije. No mnogi svejedi konzumiraju više proteina od preporučenog, što može dovesti do negativnih posljedica po njihovo zdravlje. Prevelika konzumacija proteina uzrok je zdravstvenih problema, poput nepravilnosti u radu bubrega u starijih ljudi i ljudi koji inače imaju problema s bubrezima. Prevelika konzumacija proteina može utjecati na ravnotežu kalcija u tijelu te time dovesti do nedostatka minerala u kostima. Istraživanje provedeno u Velikoj Britaniji 1990. godine pokazalo je da je prosječni dnevni unos količine proteina kod muškaraca 84 g, a kod žena 64 g, što je više od preporučenog.
Različite vrste proteina mogu imati različit utjecaj na razinu kolesterola i masnoće u krvotoku. Pokazalo se da do većih hormonalnih promjena dolazi nakon obroka temeljenog na kazeinu (mlijeku) nego nakon obroka temeljenog na soji. To znači da protein mlijeka uzrokuje povećanje razine kolesterola i masnoće u krvi, koji su pritom glavni uzročnici srčanih bolesti.
Istraživanje provedeno na 620 žena u Singapuru pokazalo je da one žene koje još nisu prošle kroz menopauzu, a čija redovna prehrana uključuje protein soje i općenito sojine proizvode, imaju upola manji rizik od obolijevanja od raka dojke. Konzumacija crvenog mesa i proteina životinjskog podrijetla povećava rizik raka dojke u žena koje nisu prošle kroz menopauzu.
Prehrana koja uključuje mnogo mesa dovodi do povećanja razine mokraćne kiseline u urinu, te općenitog povećanja razine urične kiseline u tijelu, što može dovesti do stvaranja bubrežnih kamenaca.

Znači li to da na taj način i djeca mogu dobiti dovoljne količine proteina?
U svojoj prehrani djeca općenito trebaju više energije nego proteina. Sve dok dobivaju dovoljne količine energije djeca će se normalno razvijati čak i ako proteine dobivaju samo iz prehrane temeljene na voću i povrću. Dojenčad i djeca iz veganske prehrane mogu dobiti svu potrebnu energiju i proteine te se normalno razvijati i ostati zdravi. Iako su često mršavija od djece hranjene mesom, ona ipak ostaju unutar normalnih granica težine i visine. Preporučen unos proteina i energije ona mogu postići redovitim jedenjem pravilno pripremljene hrane visoke energetske vrijednosti, poput žitarica, mahunarki i orašastog voća, te jedući manje količine voća i povrća niže energetske vrijednosti. U zadnje vrijeme zabilježena su samo dva slučaja nedovoljnog unosa proteina i/ili kalorija u dojenčadi hranjenih veganskom hranom, ali je u tim slučajevima to bilo uslijed prevelike razrijeđenosti hrane ili nedovoljne raznolikosti u prehrani. Ostali poznati slučajevi nedostatka proteina ili energije u dojenčadi čija se prehrana temeljila na alternativnim metodama uključivali su ograničavajuće makrobiotičke ili vegetarijanske načine prehrane, ili pak određene promjene u prehrani koje su primjenjivali roditelji te dojenčadi iz mogućih zdravstvenih razloga.

Dodatne informacije

Za više detalja o veganskoj prehrani pročitajte knjigu Stephena Walsha, Plant Based Nutrition and Health. U toj knjizi pronaći ćete rezultate istraživanja veganske prehrane, koja mogu biti od koristi zdravstvenim radnicima, veganima te onima koji bi htjeli postati vegani.

Izvor: Prijatelji životinja
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Nepročitano 22-11-16, 23:30   #4
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Zadani Veganski proteini

Imate li iskustva s veganskim proteinima? Myprotein ima akciju pa razmišljam o narudžbi, znate li gdje bi ih još mogla nabaviti?
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