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Vitamin B12

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Što je B12 i zašto vam je potreban? Vitamin B12 radi ...

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Vegetarijanstvo Vegetarijanskom prehranom do zdravlja

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Nepročitano 23-12-14, 17:45   #1
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Zadani Vitamin B12

Što je B12 i zašto vam je potreban?

Vitamin B12 radi zajedno sa folatom u sintezi DNA i crvenih krvnih zrnaca. Uključen je u proizvodnju mijelinskog ovoja oko živaca i provođenje živčanih impulsa. Zamislite mozak i živčani sustav kao splet žica . Mijelin je izolacija koja štiti žice i pomaže provoditi impulse.
Nedostatak vitamina B12 dolazi u 4 faze. Prva faza se očituje u padu vitamina u krvi , progresivno prelazeći u nisku koncentraciju (druga faza),te prelazi u povećanje homocisteina i smanjene stope sinteze DNA (treća faza) do megaloblastične anemije koja je četvrta faza.
Megaloblastična (perniciozna) anemija je autoimuno oboljenje u kojem tijelo uništava protein potreban za apsorbciju vitamina B12 ali anemija je zadnja faza nedostatka B12. Puno prije anemije javljaju se slabost,gubitak pamćenja,neurološki i psihički problemi,letargija i umor.

Zašto je nedostatak B12 tako česta pojava?

Apsorpcija B12 uključuje nekoliko koraka i svaki od njih može poći po krivu.
Uzroci slabe asporpcije B12 uključuju:
-propusna crijeva / upalu u crijevima
-gastritis /nisku želučana kiselina
-korištenje lijekova za gastritis
-alkohol
-izloženost dušikovom oksidu (npr. prilikom operacije)

Ovo objašnjava zašto se manjak B12 javlja čak i kod onih koji jedu velike količine hrane bogate vitaminom B12.

Rizik za nedostatak B12 imaju:
-vegeterijanci i vegani
-stariji od 60 godina
-osobe koje koriste lijekove za želučanu kiselinu i gastritis
-osobe koje imaju dijabetes i koriste lijekove kao Metmorfin
-oboljeli od Chronove bolesti,celijakije,ulceroznog kolitisa i sindroma iritabilnih crijeva (IBS)
-žene koje su imale spontane pobačaje i problema sa neplodosti


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Nepročitano 23-12-14, 17:46   #2
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B12 se nalazi ugl. samo u proizvodima životinjskog porijekla (s iznimkom biljke mace)

B12 je jedini vitamin koji sadrži element u tragovima (kobalt) i zato je i nazvan kobalmin.
Kobalmin se proizvodi u crijevima životinja i jedini je vitamin koji ne možemo dobiti preko biljaka i Sunčeve svjetlosti. Biljke ne trebaju B12 pa ga ni ne pohranjuju.

Ustaljeni mit među veganima i vegeterijancima je kako je moguće unijeti B12 iz : soje,algi,spiruline i pivskog kvasca ALI biljna hrana za koju se navodi da sadrži B12,zapravo sadrži analoge B12,takozvane kobamide-tvari koje blokiraju unos pravog B12 i zapravo povećavaju potrebu za pravim B12.
Ovo objašnjava zašto studije pokazuju da 50 % dugogodišnjih vegeterijanaca,i 80 % vegana imaju nedostatak vitamina B12.

Efekti B12 na djecu su posebno alarmantni. Studije pokazuju da djeca koja su do šeste godine odrastala na veganskoj hrani, imaju manjak B12 čak godinama nakon što počnu konzumirati hranu životinjskog porijekla.
U jednoj studiji je otkrivena: „...značajna poveznica između kobalmina (B12) i izvedbe na testu koji mjeri fluidnu inteligenciju, kombinatornu sposobnost i kratkotrajnu memoriju. Djeca odrasla na veganskoj ishrani postigla niže rezultate od djece odrasle na raznolikoj prehrani .“

Svatko ima pravo izabrati način svoje ishrane i svaki roditelj bira za svoje dijete ono što smatra najboljim te je u ovom slučaju od velike važnosti suplementiranje B12 u ishrani vegeterijanaca/vegana. Ovoj skupini pripadaju i trudnice.


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Nepročitano 23-12-14, 17:48   #3
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Zadani

Kako se liječi nedostatak ovog vitamina?

Najveća tragedija u ovoj priči je što je dijagnoza nedostatka B12 jednostavna kada se usporedi sa posljedicama koje uzrokuje.
Pacijenti oboljeli od Chronove bolesti i metaloblastične anemije te oni kojima je nedostatak B12 uzrokovao neurološke probleme, bi trebali primati inekcije B12 .

Cijanokobalmin je najčešći oblik B12 ali je bolji oblik hydroxycobalmin (često korišten u Europi),dok je methylcobalmin najbolji oblik,posebno za neurološka oboljenja.

Što bi svi (posebno vegetarijanci) trebali znati o nedostatku B12?

Standardni testovi detektiraju samo jedan mali dio B12 iz krvi,točnije test iz krvi mjeri ukupni B12 u krvi i ne otkriva koliko je od tog B12 tijelu iskoristivo.
Osjetljiviji tj.točniji testovi za nedostatak B12 uključuju metilmaloničnu kiselinu i holotranskobalmin II (holo-TC) koji predstavlja aktivan dio B12 koji ulazi u stanice i iskoristiv je za organizam.
MMA se mjeri iz krvi i urina,a oba načina imaju svoje prednosti i nedostatke.
Povišena MMA ukazuje na nedostatak B12 ali povišena u urinu može biti uzrokovana i poremećajem u radu bubrega dok u krvi može biti povišena radi prisutnosti crijevnih bakterija pa test koji ćete napraviti ovisi i o zdravstvenom stanju organizma.

Po ovim metodama otkrivanja nedostatka vitamina B12 pokazalo se da 68 posto vegeterijanaca i 83 posto vegana ima nedostatak B12 !

Ukoliko nemate mogućnost testirati MMA i holotranskobalmin, može poslužiti i standardni test iz krvi uz napomenu da su vrijednosti u referentim vrijednostima koje daju labaratoriji preniski te da nedostatak B12 pokazuje sve ispod 350 pg/mL (napomena: preračunato u jedinice koje pružaju hrvatski labaratoriji to je 258 pmol/L)


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Nepročitano 23-12-14, 17:50   #4
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Zadani

Tiha epidemija sa ozbiljnim posljedicama

Što sve ove bolesti imaju zajedničko?
-Alzheimerova bolest ,demencija,kognitivni pad i gubitak pamćenja
-Multipla skleroza (MS) i drugi neurološki poremećaji
-Mentalne bolesti (depresija,anksioznost,bipolarni poremećaj,psihoza)
-Kardiovaskularne bolesti
-Poremećaji učenja i napredovanja kod djece
-Autizam
-Autoimune bolesti i poremećaji imuniteta
-Rak
-Neplodnost (kod muškaraca i žena)

Odgovor: svi ovi poremećaji / stanja/ bolesti / mogu biti uzrokovani nedostatkom vitamina B12.

Nevidljiva epidemija

Nedostatak vitamina B12 nije bizarna,nepoznata bolest. Opisan je u svakom medicinskom priručniku i njegov nedostak je dobro poznat medicinskoj struci. Međutim,nedostatak ovog vitamina je mnogo učestaliji nego što se smatra.
Podaci sa Tufs University Framingham Offsprign Study pokazuju da 40 posto ljudi između 28 i 83 godine,u krvi imaju nižu normalnu vrijednost vitamina B12 a to su vrijednosti koje mogu izazvati neurološke simptome.
9 posto je imalo nedostak a 16 posto vrijednosti na donjim granicama referentnih vrijednosti,tj vrlo blizu da se klasificira kao nedostatak.
Najviše je iznenadila činjenica da je nedostatak B12 bio jednako čest među mlađom i starijom populacijom.
Nedostatak vitamina B12 pogađa oko 40 posto ljudi iznad 60 godina i dolazi se do zaključka da su slabije pamćenje i smanjena pokretnost ,sve „sindromi starenja“ možda zapravo samo nedostatak B12.

Zašto je nedostatak B12 rijetko dijagnosticiran?

Dva su razloga,kao prvo B12 se ne testira rutinski,a drugi razlog je širok raspon referentnih vrijednosti a donja vrijednost je daleko preniska.
U znanstvenoj literaturi piše da pacijenti sa 200-350 pg/mL ,za koje se smatra da su „normalni“ nalaz,imaju simptome nedostatka vitamina B12.
Stručnjaci koji su se specijalizirali za dijagnozu i liječenje nedostatka ovog vitamina,sugeriraju da se trebaju liječiti svi pacijenit kojima je nalaz niži od 450 pg /mL ali i oni kojima je B12 450 pg/mL ili viši ali imaju povišenu mokraćnu
kiselinu,homocistein i/ili holotranskobalmina (drugi marker za dijagnozu nedostatka B12).


Suplementi

Općeniti pristup uključuje 1000 mcg (1 mg) methylcobalmina. Dobar izbor je Jarrow Formulas Methyl-B12 zajedno sa folatom (solgar folate 800 mcg 1x na dan),kalijem (Natures Potassium 99 mg 3x na dan) i trimethylglycin /TMG (Jarrow 500 mg 1x na dan)



Izvori: http://www.stopthethyroidmadness.com/b12/
http://chriskresser.com/b12-deficien...s-consequences


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Nepročitano 23-12-14, 17:54   #5
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Nedostatak vitamina B12 - perniciozna anemija

PERNICIOZNU ANEMIJU karakteriziraju često jaki neurološki i psihijatrijski simptomi (iznenadno ludilo, agresija, neuračunjivost) koji uvelike prethode hematološkim manifestacijama bolesti. Kao i kod većine drugih nalaza, interval je vrlo, vrlo širok, a samo rezultati iznad 300 ng/L smatraju se nisko/granično normalnim, a samo najgornjih 15% intervala je optimalno.

Ne morate imati nedostatak željeza da bolujete od perniciozne anemije! U prošlosti su tu bolest zvali MEGALOBLASTIČNO LUDILO (megaloblastic madness) zbog izrazito teških psihijatrijskih manifestacija bolesti. B12 također utječe na proizvodnju serotonina. Nedostatak B12 povećava razine homocisteina i rizik od srčanih bolesti, jer je homocistein toksičan za živce i vene. Nedostatak B12 često se i danas krivo dijagnosticira kao multipla skleroza, jer je B12 ključan za mijelinsku ovojnicu živaca i prijenos živčanih impulsa, te ako je dugo neliječen, uzrokuje subakutnu kombiniranu degeneraciju kralježničke moždine, a pridonosi i razvoju Parkinsonove i Alzheimerove bolesti. U SAD-u je obavezno suplementiranje svih pšeničnih/žitnih proizvoda folnom kiselinom, odnosno vitaminom B9, i to sintetskim, jer desetljećima kola fama da je važno uzimati B9 (pogotovo trudnice). Istraživanja pokazuju da se nemetabolizirani sintetski B9 (folna kiselina) taloži u organizmu i pogoršava stanje kod oboljelih, odnosno visoke razine B9 u kombinaciji s niskim razinama B12 samo maskiraju krvnu sliku. Puno je manje opasno imati niske razine i B9 i B12, nego optimalne razine B9, a niske razine B12.

Pojednostavljeno, bez vitamina B12 se umire lud i u užasnim bolovima, u kolicima ili potpuno nepokretan.
Ispravan oblik B12 jest methylcobalamin.


Za one koje žele znati više:
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Lindsay H. Allen, How common is vitamin B12 deficiency?
Tufts University, Health Sciences, Vitamin B-12 Function May Be Diminished By Excessive Folate
Victor Herbert, M.D., Potential Harmful Effects of Folate Food Fortification without Added Cobalamin
The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, David Smith, Folic acid fortification: the good, the bad, and the puzzle of vitamin B-12


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Nepročitano 23-12-14, 17:59   #6
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Citat:
Originally Posted by Jesam Pogledaj Post
B12 se nalazi SAMO u proizvodima životinjskog porijekla
Nalazi se i u namirnici biljnog porijekla: maca korijenu. Ima ga u malim količinama, otprilike kao i u jajima.

PS: ova tema je trebala pod veganstvo, IMHO
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Nepročitano 23-12-14, 18:12   #7
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Maca nije hrana nego suplement i to je adaptogen pa se baš i ne može konzumirati kao snack.

Može i pod veganstvo - nek modovi presele ako smatraju prikladnim.


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Citat:
Originally Posted by Jesam Pogledaj Post
Maca nije hrana nego suplement i to je adaptogen pa se baš i ne može konzumirati kao snack.
Maca je krstašica pa prema tome je hrana, baš poput brokule, zelja, kelja pupčara itd. itd. Ak su to tebi suplementi... Get
A i baš nisam razumio zašto bi se maca morala konzumirati kao snack ali whatever...
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Citat:
Originally Posted by Jesam Pogledaj Post
Može i pod veganstvo - nek modovi presele ako smatraju prikladnim.
Mislim da bi D vitamin i B12 vitamin teme trebalo označiti više uočljivo - tipa: Na što vegani moraju pripaziti (bubnula sad, sigurno postoji bolji naziv)...

I, bilo bi sve na jednom mjestu. A 30 godina takve ishrane i iskustva, mislim da iz prve ruke na ovakvome forumu je više nego dragocijeno za naglasiti...


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Nepročitano 24-12-14, 13:25   #10
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Citat:
Originally Posted by sinkezg Pogledaj Post
Maca je krstašica pa prema tome je hrana, baš poput brokule, zelja, kelja pupčara itd. itd. Ak su to tebi suplementi... Get
A i baš nisam razumio zašto bi se maca morala konzumirati kao snack ali whatever...
Sinke, uistinu ne znam čemu takav ton i način u komunikaciji svaki put kada se izlaže nešto sa čime se osobno ne slažeš.

Maca je adaptogen i utječe na hormonski balans organizma na način da ujednačava vrijednosti - u pojedinim situacijama je uopće nije pametno konzumirati, npr. ako je kortizol kontinuirano nizak.

U našem je podneblju uopće nema, prema tome, naši ljudi je NE konzumiraju pod normalno, a ako da - onda u vidu praha kao suplement prema specifičnim potrebama.

Čak i da je se konzumira ko brokulu, ona nije dovoljna da zadovolji sve potrebe organizma za B12, posebno ako je prisutno neko od oboljenja tipa autoimunih od kojih dana boluje 60% populacije (bubnula sam ali mislim da sam i podcijenila brojku, samo što to mnogi ne znaju nego šutke pate i trpe jer im nitko ne zna objasniti što im je).

Pišem o stvarima koje sam dobro proučila. Zar bi ja sad tebi trebala napisati: get help!?
Ajmo 'uzet malo mace' i adaptirati način komunikacije.

Ja pišem sve ovo iz najbolje namjere da pomognem onima koji ne znaju i griješe jednako kao što sam ja griješila dugo dugo - jer sam isto napola provjerila neke stvari.


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